Last updated on: October 2nd, 2023

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A 36-year-old man presents with right-sided flank pain for three days. No other symptoms are present. His medical history is significant for at least four urinary tract infections (UTIs) over the last two years, which were treated with short courses of antibiotics. Despite medical advice to the contrary, he opted against further investigations. Exposition of his family history reveals that a maternal uncle was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease at the age of 50; the causative etiology is not known to the patient. He only drinks socially, does not smoke, and denies using recreational drugs. A complete blood count (CBC) is significant for a leukocyte count of 12,000/mm3, with 82% neutrophils.

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